For centuries, Jerusalem, Israel, has been a place where different ideas, people and religions run into one another, and that's a big part of what makes it such a fascinating place to visit. As the focal point of three of the world's major religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam—Jerusalem's temples and shrines continuously welcome pilgrims bound for those places that make the city so special.

The collision of cultures is also part of the reason that Jerusalem has been the scene of upheaval and conquest throughout its long history. Conquerors have left their marks on Jerusalem, from the Greeks and Romans to the Ottomans and the British. The Old City, its massive fortifications enclosing the Temple Mount, Western Wall and Church of the Holy Sepulchre, has its foundations some 3,000 years ago in the days of King Solomon, who enlarged the walled area, while majestic remnants of King Herod's massive construction works 1,000 years later are clearly visible.

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